The Foundation of Russian History archives, measuring 450 linear feet, contains documents relating to Holy Trinity Monastery and Seminary, as well as those dealing with the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in the diaspora, and the Russian emigration in general. These include papers relating to the activities of political, military, and social Russian émigré organizations; the correspondence of various prominent Russian émigré intellectuals; the correspondence of notable leaders of the Orthodox Church; and several collections containing photographic material that documents the life of the Russian diaspora.

In 2007, thanks to a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, twenty-nine archival collections were microfilmed in a cooperative project with the Hoover Institution of War, Revolution, and Peace. The microfilmed collections can be accessed by researchers in the Foundation of Russian History library, as well as the Hoover Institution Archives. The Foundation archives also holds microform copies of several collections that are held by other institutions. These include collections from the Museum of Russian Culture in San Francisco and from the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The Foundation continues to participate in exchanges of copies of archival materials with both US and Russian institutions, thus providing greater access to these materials.

Archival materials are available to registered users in the Research Reading Room during library open hours. Users wishing to access archival materials must give advance notice of their planned research visit.