The collection of the Foundation of Russian History museum include a variety of religious objects, militaria, paintings, works on paper, decorative art, books and documents. Most of the artifacts date from the second half of the 19th century to the present. Among these are a substantial number of objects that belonged to the Russian Imperial Family, many having been donated by members of the Romanov family: Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna, sister of Nicholas II; Princess Vera Konstantinovna; Prince Teimuraz Bagration-Mukhransky; and Tikhon Kulikovsky, son of Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna. An especially significant set of imperial provenance artifacts are the nearly ninety objects belonging to Tsar Nicholas II, members of his family, and their attendants that were collected as material evidence by investigator Nikolai Sokolov after the Royal Family’s murder in 1918 in Yekaterinburg. Along with these items the Foundation received over 600 pages of documents recovered by Sokolov, which relate to the Royal Family’s incarceration in Tobolsk and Yekaterinburg and include correspondence, clippings, invoices, receipts, photographs, and notebooks. Another significant collection includes objects related to Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich, grandson of Emperor Nicholas I. Other unique and rare items in the museum collection are the medals, orders, and banners of various anti-Bolshevik military forces from the time of the Russian Civil War.

Currently on view at the Foundation of Russian History museum is the exhibit The Russian Word and Image: Four Centuries of Books and Art. The museum is located in the south wing of the Seminary building.

The museum collaborates with other institutions by loaning objects for exhibitions both in the United States and abroad.